Lecture given by Br. Manuel Uña Fernández, O.P., in the Aula Magna of the University of Havana on January 5, 2021, on the 293rd anniversary of its foundation.

Por: Fr. Manuel Uña Fernández, O.P.

Conferencia dictada por Fr. Manuel Uña Fernández, O.P., en el Aula Magna de la Universidad de la Habana el 5 de enero de 2021, a propósito del aniversario 293 de su fundación.
Conferencia dictada por Fr. Manuel Uña Fernández, O.P., en el Aula Magna de la Universidad de la Habana el 5 de enero de 2021, a propósito del aniversario 293 de su fundación.

“Honoring honor, that translates into recognition of the other,

to make visible the human acts that we can tell of the other.

Honor always involves a good talk,

because to speak, you only need one word of kindness.”

José Martí


Title: “You Gave Us to Drink the Water of Wisdom”

In the undeniable steed of love, the victor of death, I would first like to express my pestumo appreciation to the City Historian, Dr. Eusebio Leal, for the trust placed in me months ago to give this conference. Your friendship, from the first hour of my arrival in Havana, allowed me to accompany you with transparency, sympathy and deep affection until the end of your fruitful life among us. It is also worthy of recognition, his tireless work to make this city a humanized and embellished space. He was the man who did not give in to his purpose of enrumrating his work anchored in country history in a debtor and grateful spirit, to those of us who still have encouragement to continue his enormous work. To Eusebio, my loyal friend, I dedicate these words that I share here.

And to you, Dr. Félix Julio Alfonso, Dean of the University College of San Gerónimo, my gratitude for your deference to me and respect for the memory of Eusebio.

Today we are in a place that is a bridge between stories: that of men who set out to make the University the space to seek the truth, and that of others, continuators of that legacy, and also moved by the desire to continue to form good people.

It is in the present of the past and in the present of the future that the present of the present is weeded, our today. We must not only thank what it already was but also commit ourselves to what it will be.

The title of these pages is part of an antiphon that is sung every night by the friars during the full prayer, is a hymn to our holy founder Domingo de Guzmán and reflects well the dream of the Order of Preachers: “drinking the water of wisdom”. An image that transports us at the first hour of Creation and almost makes me visualize the currents of the great river that had sprouted in the Garden of Eden and was divided into four arms according to the biblical account (Gen. 2:10).

It is in the certainty of origin that the Dominicans also find the power to dream. When I was very young, one of the first books I read was El Sueño de Juana de Aza, the mother of Saint Domingo. Joan, when she was pregnant, dreamed that she saw a dog touring the world with a torch lit. A monk who interpreted the dream told him that this dog was his son and that he would carry the gospel all over the world.

Today is the Order of Preachers to which I belong, an Eight Hundred Years Order dedicated to the study and search for truth.

Year after year, every January 5th, you have seen how in the front row of the classroom of the Colegio San Gerónimo sit some friars with their black and white habits. Some may have wondered: who are they and why are they here? Those that you see every year are the children of Saint Dominic, the Dominican friars, whose presence has had a founding dimension in our Cuban land. The history of dominicans in Cuba tells us that we have become empathetic with all those who have stimulated human, spiritual and intellectual growth, while feeling as part of our vocation to weave our chores.

In Cuba the presence of the Order has been decisive, as demonstrated in the fact that many pages of Cuban history were written by Dominicans and some of the most notable is already impossible to separate them from Cuban thought.

That he has been invited to speak at the University is not only a just memory of the past, but present dialogue, which aspires to seek together the truth, wherever it comes from, and build a better future for all. And since dreaming is a very Dominican thing, believe me that what I am living this afternoon with you in this emblematic and sacred place, it is.

I arrived in Havana on October 15, 1993 and from the following year, every January 5, we were around the monument to the Bell (corner Bishop and Merchants) Mr. Historian of the City, Dr. Eusebio Leal Spengler, Msgr. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, Br. José Manuel Fernández González del Valle, Dr. Delio Carrera, Historian of the University , and who speaks to them.

The meeting of that endearing group, of which most of its members live differently today, was the beginning so that, little by little, I would become familiar with the place and some of you whose presence I keep in my heart. How much I would like to be able to date the day and year when my colleague Br. Domingo Romero, prior of the community of the New Lateran in the Vedado, handed over the bell to Mr. Historian of the city to be placed in the Colegio San Gerónimo on behalf of the preaching friars, as a remarkable memory of the former lost! Happy I felt when I could contemplate that I had been returned to the top of the tower so that from there, teachers and students, could hear his call…

I have come from afar and before my desire to know, one day I asked Dr. Félix Julio by the name of the personalities who adorn the Aula Magna of the Colegio San Gerónimo. One by one I welcomed them and retained them in my memory: Felix Varela, José de la Luz y Caballero, Mendive, Saco, Varona and Martí; before them, pillars of thought in Cuba, the common dream of a homeland with all and for the good of all is increased.

I. Santo Domingo and his Order
I.1 Santo Domingo a man of his time

Santo Domingo de Guzmán was born in Caleruega, Burgos, Spain, knew the South of France well, made trips to Scandinavia and what would later become Italy; crossed many countries, crossing Europe and saw the damage caused by the famous cumanos. There were many encounters with clerics, friars and heretics. As he walked he had time to get to know the environment and this allowed him a broad and deep view of his time. The foundation of the Order was deeply conditioned by this experience of life, as well as its preaching and apostolic work. The Order was therefore born with an international vision of the world that reminds us of the aforementioned dream of its mother.

Another thing that moves Saint Domingo deeply is that he experienced a great crisis in the Church, caused by wealth and ignorance. In his attempt to combat ignorance, Domingo sends his friars to study at the great universities (Paris, Bologna, Oxford) and fight against the heresies of his time. Experience, which in some way must have conditioned the foundation of the Order to convert heretics.

He also knew well the position of the Church, what the bishops themselves did in their disputes with heretics and their pastoral methods. I knew how the Pope’s delegates lived. He also knew Rome, and the Pope knew him. The Pope takes advantage of the experience of such a sensitive man, who receives in himself what he saw and who wants to work for renewal. Impossible to forget this sentence of yours: “not like that, not so…”.

Sunday will marry the Truth and be accompanied by poverty. For this reason, it will be mendicant in a time of evolution of the world, of a very important social evolution such as urbanism.

The move from the countryside to the city involved not only the constructive growth of cities but the formation of a new type of government with the promotion of the bourgeoisie. A change of epoch and its consequent new problems. He saw and lived this in Tolosa, Paris and in the north of the Italian peninsula.

In Paris he was aware of the emerging university world, and when he realized its importance he decided to send friars to study. He sent them to Bologna, a city that was then the most advanced in law studies, since he conceived the relevance of this knowledge to face the change that was being operated on in society. His friars will not be contemplative monks isolated in abbeys, but the dispersal of the first convents founded will depend in much on this vision that Domingo has of reality.

Domingo thinks, meditates before making decisions and when asked for what purpose (the friars) should go to Bologna, Paris, etc. their answer is: “to preach, to study and found a convent”, and exhorted them not to be afraid. “I know what I’m doing!” I would tell them.

It was certainly an exceptional act, arguably the most charismatic event of his life, a bold decision that marked the history of the Order and without which it would not have existed.

It was also unique in the history of the Church, as Domingo chose the apostolic adventure rather than the intimacy offered by a certain security in return, however, of limited apostolic activity.

I.2 – Preachers in the Service of Truth.

“We will never know the truth if we are content with what has already been discovered. The writers who preceded us are not our lords, but our guides. Truth is open to all, it has not yet been occupied” (Guilbert Tournai).

In the coat of arms of the Order appears a sublime and ambitious motto: “Veritas”. The ideal has been repeatedly defined as the ideal of Truth. We call the Order of Preachers, the Order of Truth. But this denomination, which goes back to its origins, did not then taste an arrogant presumption on the part of the Dominicans.

Before we were founded, there was already this technical expression to call the Order of Preachers or Doctors, that is, bishops. From the patristic era to say “order of preachers,” it was equivalent to saying “order of truth.”1

Truth is no one’s monopoly. The order since its inception has clearly seen how decisive it is to seek truth through study. This is itself a Dominican project, but also, it is worth saying, a project of the restless man. “Study as a constant search for Truth is the exact meaning of the motto of ‘Truth’ and the ‘ideal of Truth’.” It’s the only valid meaning. “The truth has not yet been occupied.” And in this way, the ideal of truth or constant study for the sake of it is more than just a source of pride, it is a commitment, a passion. The first objective in the face of truth is not to define it theoretically but to seek it, to discover it, to contemplate it and to transmit it. That is why the great masters of mankind have not wanted to be called wise, but “lovers of wisdom”.

I.3 – The Order of Preachers and Their Look at the New World

The Modern Age of History began in 1492. In that year, europeans discovered a New World, a momentous fact in the annals of the human and transcendental family also in the annals of the Church, as it opened enormous prospects for the evangelization of peoples. The Dominicans, so committed to their own charism in the evangelizing work, “went at the time of sixth, and not to the prime”,2 that is, they changed course – to say it in marine language – and from their initial African vocation, about to fully curd, an Indian vocation was made to the New World. The date of the arrival of a first group of Dominicans in America is given by a witness in an exultant chronicle:

“In the year of a thousand and five hundred and ten […] by the month of September, I trujo the divine providence the order of Saint Sunday …. The first moveer, and whom God divinely inspired the past of the order here, was […] Fray Domingo de Mendoza … for his holy purpose he found at hand a religious named Father Friar Pedro de Córdoba”.3

The order to send Dominicans to the New World was given by the Master General, Friar Thomas of Vio Cayetano, on October 3, 1508. With a preceptive decision and historical clairvoyance, Cayetano, famous theologian and squealing, does not hesitate as ruler and says, “I order and command the sending of 15 friars,” the king will surely give “funny support for the expedition.”4

In 1510 the friars first arrive on the island of Hispaniola, which had remarkable mobility due to the conquest of the rest of the Greater Antilles. In June 1511, two of them departed for Cuba5 and a small group of friars will arrive in April 1515 in Baracoa and then spread through Bayamo, Trinidad, Cienfuegos, Havana.

They were all friars marked by virtue and in letters. An interesting detail is that the first Dominicans when they came to America with them brought their books.

The cry of Antonio Montesinos on the island of Hispaniola: “By what right, are these not men?”, was evangelical and prophetic, double-edged sword for Friar Bartholomew of the Houses. The time had sounded in the Order of Preachers to create a new province for a new world. A province on the way and on the way, a province on an open border, born in response to a unique challenge and with its own physiognomy.6

The province of Andalusia or Bética is the new entity, which leaves the mainland through the large gate of the Guadalquivir River towards the sea, kissing the columns of Hercules. It is in America that the Province writes the best chapters in its history, of which I feel heir, since my presence on this Atlantic shore also had its genesis in a surprising way. It was 1986 when, who speaks to them, from Seville, came to Cuba for the first time. Since then thirty-three have been the times I have crossed the Atlantic until, after the service entrusted to me, I came to stay on the island where Fr. Bartolomé de las Casas had previously stayed. Also one is from the two banks.7

Continuing our count, it is in April 1515 that a group of friars, sons of Santo Domingo, arrive in Baracoa. The first friars bear witness to the preaching of the Order, which is a sustained and community-encouraged preaching, and witnessed in a life of fraternity that wants to be preaching in itself.”8 There were three priests and a deacon, all people marked by virtue and in letters. History retained for us their names: Br. Gutierrez de Ampudia, man of vast ecclesiastical and civil culture as vicar; Br. Bernardo de Manzanedo also doctor; Br. Pedro de San Martín, well endowed as a preacher and Br. Diego de Alberica, who was a deacon.

These were the first Dominicans to make an appearance in Cuba, not counting Br. Bartolomé de las Casas who received “much joy and consolation when he met his arrival”.

The early friars “were commissioned to gather the faithful to the bell ringing on the evenings of the holidays to instruct them on things of faith, and for the sacristan to teach children under the age of nine to read and write. They were therefore the first instructors to have the Indian and Indian, and from their disciples emerged the first preceptors that the white population of Cuba had.9[i] In this way, those friars became the first masters, and Baracoa the inhabited place where the first letters were taught. It will later be “in San Salvador de Bayamo where one of the most important convents is founded”, perhaps, in the words of Dr. Leal, “the most important after Havana”.10

Two years later, in 1517, Fr. Juan Witte was appointed Bishop of Cuba, “to which is due to the foundation of the first school that officially operated in Cuba, the Scholanía in the Cathedral of Santiago… 11 Years later Fr. Diego de Carvajal founded in Havana the Church of Santo Domingo, between the streets Obispo, O’Reilly, San Ignacio and Mercaderes and on the same site began the construction of the convent of San Juan de Letrán in Havana, where the preaching friars began to study and teach classes. It would not be adventurous to say that since the church of Santo Domingo was erected a new school began to operate in Havana, driven by the charism of the Dominicans. Over time this school was transformed into, in the seventeenth century, “the embryo of the future University of San Gerónimo de Havana”.12

Dr. Torres Cuevas tells us, “It is very likely that, in the middle of the seventeenth century, as well as San Juan de Letrán was the only center where higher education was taught in Cuba, although Dominicans did not have the power to confer degrees at that time and it is presumable that the registration of convent classrooms was from their very beginnings a mixed enrolment , of religious and laity.”13

The steps taken by the preaching friars to avoid the difficulties that were emerging on the part of the governments of Spain were truly courageous and heroic. After years and years, when management seemed forgotten, the Dominicans again insisted on the subject before the commissioners of the year, who would raise to their majesty a report on the desirability of Havana having a center where the natives of the island of Cuba could study higher education, without having to travel to Mexico , to Santo Domingo or Spain itself and pleaded with the monarch “to give the grace to found the University in his convent of San Juan de Letrán”.14

  1. University FoundationIt will be at the session of July 9, 1688, that the solicitor general, Lieutenant Don Luis de Soto, raises a new petition to the king expressing the “usefulness and public good” that would mean that in the studies of San Juan de Letrán, higher and lower degrees could be given in the way that at the University of Santo Domingo, and it would be suggested that the captain general and the Bishop of Cuba be asked respectively to ask the king and His Holiness that grace.15The difficulties will begin to widen in the first quarter of the eighteenth century. In 1717, the Attorney General of the Order in the Philippines, Mexico and Havana, Fr. Bernardo Membrive prepared a thorough memorial that directed the monarch where he listed the previous efforts and explained the urgency of Cuban society to receive the benefits that the new institution would bring them.

    Philip V examined the memorial and on 9 October of the same year dispatched a letter to Cardinal Aquaviva, to intercede before His Holiness Innocent XIII. This management culminated successfully and on 12 September 1721 Innocent XIII issued in Rome, in Santa María la Mayor, “sub annulo piscatoris”, a Brief granting Havana authorization to confer degrees in the sciences and faculties taught in the convent of San Juan de Letrán, as well as at the University of the Convent of Santo Domingo of the same Order on the island of Hispaniola and with them privileges, honors, and graces that he enjoyed and enjoyed.16

    Overlooking the difficulties caused beyond the seas and the crown, the Order of Preachers has to address the difficulties and contradictions that arise within the ecclesiastical hierarchy itself.

    Bishop Valdés, who had maintained very good relations with the friars, was awakened by the desire for the university to settle in certain houses of his property and tried to subordinate the new foundation to the bishopric. Faced with this position the friars are bewildered and manifest their unwavering will that the university designed by them be founded in the convent of San Juan de Letrán and that is when the frictions begin with the prelated, which they tried to a amainate in the very name (San Gerónimo) of the University.

    On 5 January 1728, in use of the faculties offered to him by the Apostolic Brief of September 12, 1721, he issued an order founding for himself, in private and in the privacy of the convent, the University of Havana and also appointed in use the aforementioned faculties to the rector cancelio and the four consiliarios; that is to say to his four advisors or advisors and immediately began operating the Royal and Pontifical University of San Gerónimo de la Villa de San Cristóbal in Havana.17

    January 5 marks the beginning of the foundation. Initially the University had five professorships: Theology, Canons, Laws, Medicine and Arts. The friars ruled it until 1842, when it was secularized and assumed the name of Royal and Literary University of Havana. Its first rector was Friar Tomás de Linares y del Castillo, “who topped the list of the fifty-two Dominicans who for one hundred and fourteen years led the destinies of the high house of studies”.18 In 1730 he began to confer degrees on some friars who already had sufficient preparation and very soon finished their studies the first lay people. More advanced in the century a series of events, such as the taking of Havana by the English, the growth of international trade and the need to expand the scientific knowledge and development of the island had an impact on the educational institution… and the responsibility of placing Cuban teaching in a plan in line with the times, came to the University.19

“The Dominican friars were aware of the delay of the University and many who were Cuban and Habaneros were aware that in Cuba a great transformation began to take place and they tried to modernize the studies. In 1739 they tried again as rector Fr. José Ignacio Calderón, who tried to carry out modernization, and in 1795 the famous Professor Father José Agustín Caballero provided new details about the Project. The third and great reform project was conceived by Father Caballero himself, who advocated a total change in university teaching, and presented his ideas to the Patriotic Society, explaining its content, while freeing the Dominicans from any responsibility that could be blamed upon them, saying: “But I confess simultaneously that teachers (Dominicans) lack responsibility for this particular , because they have no other discretion or action to obey.”20

With these words Fr. Caballero clearly eduded to the Spanish Monarchy, which had systematically refused to accept all the reforms previously proposed by the Dominicans and especially those that were on their way to modernizing teaching. The Royal Patriotic Society requested the Crown to implement the changes requested by Fr. Caballero, but the request was not successful either. The religious of Santo Domingo tried to seek solutions and spared no more dissimilar ways to spread teaching when Spain refused to support and carry out the reforms that so needed the University and the Island, and that were not alien to the Dominicans, already related by ideas and blood with the most urgent needs of the Cuban people.

The colonial government and the Spanish Metropolis from the dawn of the nineteenth century began to press the religious orders based in Cuba under the nefarious laws of Mendizábal, and tried to remove the friars from the government of the high house of studies, so in 1840 the University was in complete decline. In January 1841 the Dominicans were excluded from their government and when the law of Exclaustration and Desamortization was implemented, the religious of Santo Domingo were banned from entering Cuba.21

What was forged thanks to the Royal and Pontifical University of San Gerónimo de Havana, with all its successes and successes, was decisive for the formation of Cuban nationality, which is born and begins to enrich for the better of Christian and Catholic culture within the best tradition of the Order. She has the merit of having trained in Christian thought our first scientists, literates, great teachers and doctors of universal size, as well as the first ideologists of the rights and concerns of the young Cuban people.22

They were carriers of ideas that surpassed the University itself. They struggled to go beyond what they had learned. At that stage of the beginning we associate the commendable names of Father José Agustín Caballero, Father Félix Varela y Morales, Father in addition to homeland and thought; of the Dominicans Fray Juan Chacón and Rodríguez de Páez, by Fray José Remigio del Rosario Cernada, Arango y Parreño, by Pedro Figueredo, Rafael María de Mendive, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, the first among many who also sought to reach the truth through knowledge.


From the past build the present

The story we have told so far makes us see the relationship between the Dominicans and the university. The Order of Preachers, which from its origins was founded for study and has among its saints great figures of universal thought such as Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas, finds in the university a space of reason and faith. Where knowledge and research occur are the possibilities for human development. In this perspective, the university has been for the Order community of dialogue and encounter with the truth. Language, the word, is an essential thing of our being. That word finds its meaning in dialogue, not only because it helps us do other things but because it does it to ourselves.

The lifestyle inspired by the motto “Veritas” is a fruitful combination of openness and fidelity. Without openness there is no contact or true encounter, where while without fidelity there can be no orientation, direction and meaning. Openness is what generates a true welcome and fidelity allows us to offer the witness of our own convictions. These poles of openness and fidelity are therefore the premises of authentic dialogue: the former is carried out in sincere listening, respect for differences and esteem for the convictions of others, while the latter helps us to recognize the truth in the other, as well as the implications of that truth in one’s own situation.

Our passion for truth is not based on an irrational idea, but on knowledge; you can’t love what you don’t know and you can’t know without a previous love. The passion for truth is born of the deep conviction that between knowledge and love lies the content of truth.

Next to commemorate the third centenary of the founding of the Pontifical University of San Gerónimo in Havana, the Dominicans live this event with joy. The first friars were dreamers of this reality, and you and I, we have the joy of celebrating the dream of a yesterday that is a project for tomorrow.

III.1 – We walk towards the third centenary integrating the differences.

The Dominican style is a practical realization of unity in plurality, of fraternal coexistence in difference. It is not plurality or diversity itself that humanizes, but the respectful, fraternal and dialogue way in which it is live. Our project and that of my Order have been and is to integrate differences. In my Order plurality is respected and the richness of differences is lived. When rationality and fraternity are kissed, from that moment on diversity is no longer a problem but a gift that is made and welcomed for the common good.

We have been created in diversity and “the style of truth is characterized by teaching us to increasingly value our enriching differences.”23 Differences are not separations but gifts at the service of a larger community. They are not realities that need to be “endured”, but can be recognized, admired and thanked. Diversity is not well integrated into a group until differences are appreciated. In my room I keep a gift that in 2012 a group of people with differentiated capacities made me in Puebla de los Angeles, Mexico. On the back it reads like this: “The perfect square: where the sum of the differences makes a whole”.

I share with you a personal experience that has left a deep mark on me. On the afternoon of January 23, 1998, I was invited as Prior of the Community of Preaching Friars to be present in this Magna Classroom and to hear the words that His Holiness St. John Paul II would address to the world of Culture.

I was surprised by the place where I was placed: front row on the left and next to the hallway… After a few minutes I got up and went to the Head of Protocol to beg him to put me in a more discreet place. I felt listened to and with great kindness he said to me, “Father Manuel, weren’t the Dominicans the founders of the University of Havana?” “That’s right, ” I answered. He added: “So that’s his place, on his left will go the Cuban Episcopal Conference and to the right, after the central corridor, Mr. President with the Government of the Nation.”

I listened carefully to the Pope’s unique and well-precise words: “Remember that the torch that appears on the coat of arms is not only memory, but also project.” And to my mind came the words of José Martí: “Honor, honor”. It should be noted that the Dominicans are deeply honored because the University has retained as its own such a Dominican shield of inspiration, it could not be otherwise because the history and project of the Order and the Institution start from the same source and are directed towards the same purpose: to build the human being.

Our dear Dr. Leal, has been the soul, in this he put his heart and part of his life, conscious as it was that “in honor of the truth, what absolutely differentiates Spain from other powers is precisely the foundation of universities as a cradle of intellectuality that, in short, will fight for a reaffirmation of a nationality of their own”. Well I know your enthusiasm for getting the Card and placing the Headstone…. And how he was surprised to see the reaction of my brothers of the Curia Generalicia de Santa Sabina in Rome, Br. Carlos Azpiroz Costa, Master of the Order and Br. Pedro Luis González, assistant to the Iberian Peninsula. It is good that I record those who made his dream possible, for it was he who made me partaker of the joy I experienced.

I confess that I am captivated by this city that has welcomed me like a son. It is the city of the columns and lights of Alejo Carpentier, the “Real y Maravillosa” because it contains in its vast scenario history, soul and that mixture of different realities, mottled, unexpected, from which its originality has emerged.

Many were my desires to meet her, especially when I listened to the beautiful exhibition of our admired and dear Dr. Leal, master communicator, on the television show that collected the history of the city and its people. I have witnessed how the efforts of the City Historian’s Office have managed to bring bleak, seemingly dead buildings back to life, seemingly dead, by dignifying their spaces for the benefit of the community.


III.2 – A great historical vindication

In saying this I will allow my appointment again to Dr. Leal:

“There were decisions and later the utopian work of erecting a monument that also has the very high significance of recovering as a great historical vindication, a story that could only be told in a conference room, as an academic theme assumes the fundamental symbols: tower, wall and portico. It replaces the portico the beautiful figures of Saint Domingo de Guzmán, Saint Peter Martyr and Saint Thomas Aquinas; replenishes the shield of the order and calatrave shields that is in the hand of the giraldilla. And it returns to the top of the towers the bell that the Dominicans of Vedado once gave to the University of Havana in memory of what had been lost.”

By decision of the Ministry of Higher Education the Colegio Mayor San Gerónimo de La Habana was created in the same place where the University existed, to carry out studies related to the Management and Management of Historical Centers.

The College of San Gerónimo is nestled in the very origin of our Alma Mater, and for that reason it will always have its arms open to all who profess teaching and research anywhere in the homeland.

It is our task to conquer intellectual glory with the honest work of our mind and heart, while honoring the memory of teachers such as those who adorn the Magna Classroom of the San Gerónimo school: Varela, Luz y Caballero, Mendive, Saco, Varona and Martí… That is also what we are called to today, when we are asked to harmonize the distances that the pandemic demands with the grateful memory of those who know how to be true to their roots.

Thanks a lot.

Br. Manuel Uña Fernández, O.P.

Havana, Cuba as of January 5, 2021.



[1] F. Martínez Diez, Study and preaching in the Order of Preachers, Cidalc and Domingo de Guzmán, Living Gospel. Edt. San Esteban, Salamanca 1991, pg. 108-109, Cidalc 8. p.6

2 E. O’Gorman, The Invention of America, Mexico, FCE, 1977

3 Bartholomew of the Houses. History of the Indies, lib.II, cap.54,.Ed. J. Pérez de Tudela, BAE, 96. Madrid 1957, pp.132-133

4 A. Huerga, oc, p. 63-66

5 A. Marquez, Don Diego Colón, Admiral, Madrid 1982, p 371.

6 D. Byrne, Los Dominicos and the New World, Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Granada 10-14 September 1990.

7 A. Cairo, Bartholomew of the Houses and Cubans, A Testimony. Editorial, Social Sciences, p. 480

8 F. J. Carballo, An Evangelization with style, on the occasion of the 500 years of the arrival of the Dominicans in America. Order of Preachers, Province of Santiago de México, 2011.

9 Memories that the Dominican Fathers of Havana dedicate to their excellent founder Santo Domingo de Guzmán, on the VII Centenary of his precious death (1221-1921). Religious Typographic Workshops by Seoanne Fernández. Havana, 1921.pg. 100. This was recorded in celebrating the VII Centenary of the Birth of Santo Domingo, the friars assigned to Havana.

10E. Loyal. Classroom Notebook fr. Bartholomew of the Houses, 2009.Royal and Pontifical University of San Gerónimo, 1728- 1812.

11 S.Larrúa, Centenary of the Order of Preachers in Cuba. Special edition. Classroom Notebooks Fr. Bartolomé de las Casas, year 2000, p. 51.

12 S. Larrúa, 1898- 1998. Centenary of the Restoration of the Order of Preachers in Cuba. Special Edition. Classroom Notebooks Fr, Bartholomew of the Houses, p. 51.

13 E. Torres Cuevas, History of the University of Havana 1728- 1929. Editorial Social Sciences. Havana, 1984. Voli. p. 29.

14 M. Levi. Cuba: Economy and Society. Editorial Playor, Madrid 1976, t. V,p. 156; taken from AGI, Salvador Larrúa oc., p. 58.

15 Chapter Proceedings of havana City Council [original vol. 12 (1661-1672), fol 651 vto-.].

16 Brief Apostolic “Alternase Sapientiae”, General Archive of the University of Havana (ACUH) original authentic copy appearing in the Secretariat of Briefs of the Vatican Secret Archive, vol. 2561. Quoted by Salvador Larrua; 1898- 1998. Centenary of the Restoration of the Order of Preachers in Cuba. Special Edition Notebooks of the Classroom Fr. Bartolomé de las Casas, year 2000, p.62;

17 General File of Offices and Relationships Orders, leg.881, fol 245 vto- 247.

18 S. Larrúa oc., p. 64.

19 Ibid., p. 65.

20 Memoirs of the Patriotic Society of Havana, E. 14 (184) pp. 418- 419).

21 S.Larrúa, oc., pp. 66-68.

22 Ibid., p.69.

23 Br. Francisco Javier Carballo. A Style Evangelization, Order of Preachers, Province of Santiago de México, p. 25.

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